Thursday, 23 August 2012

Guidelines on how to write a good resume


By Jackie, Researcher
Topic: Employment skills (Resume writing)


The objectives of this research are to find out how a good resume can be prepared in order to secure a job, what should be and should not be included in a resume content, how to give a good impression to the interviewers, and how to stand out from the crowd. Complete guides are given below for both CV and cover letter including a sample for illustration purposes.


Introduction
Ideally, a solid CV and cover letter are the first-step to secure a dream job. A good job seeker knows that a good resume is the key to an interview invite and ultimately, to employment. Aside from a summary of your abilities, work experience and education, a resume should reveal your unique selling point to entice a potential employer to hire you.


The cover letter
A successful and effective cover letter should basically answer this question: “Why should I hire you, and not the others? That’s why you should always personalize each and every cover letter that you write. However, there are some basic rules and guidelines on how to prepare a good cover letter:
  1. Quote the job or position you are applying for and where you heard or read about the job.
  2. Keep your self-introduction brief as the employer can get more details about you from your accompanying CV.
  3. Ensure you highlight all your key achievements, experience, skills or personality traits in relation to the job advertised.
  4. Keep the length of the cover letter to one page. Use easy-to-read fonts such as Times New Roman (12pt) or Arial (11pt) in black ink.
  5. Ask a trusted friend, family member, career advisor or mentor to read through your draft letter to check for spelling or grammatical errors and to suggest improvements where possible.
  6. Use good quality white paper to print your cover letter and CV. Ensure that they are smudge-free as you want to give the best impression possible.
  7. If you are sending the application by snail mail, don’t forget to sign the letter before sending it out.

Covering all bases
Here is a 10-step guide on how to write an effective cover letter:
  1. Always address the hiring manager by name. If you don’t know the person’s name, find out the name and designation by checking the company website or calling up the department.
  2. Ensure you state the position you are applying for. The company may be advertising more than one position – don’t force the person reviewing your application to guess what you are applying for.
  3. Start by introducing yourself briefly and where you found out about the job vacancy. State also if you would like to be considered for similar positions in the company.
  4. Elaborate on why you are interested in the field or industry. Make it formal yet personable.
  5. Briefly explain how your education and any work experience make you suitable for the job.
  6. Mention any internships or other working experience, if any.
  7.  Explain briefly how these experiences and qualifications have helped in developing the skills or personality traits required to perform the job being advertised.
  8. Lead the hiring manager to your CV and make a formal request for an interview.
  9. Maintain the polite tone of your message by thanking the hiring manager in advance for his or her time.
  10. End the letter with your name printed at the bottom and a signature if you are preparing a hard copy application.

For email applications:
A cover letter is still essential. However, it should be sent as the body of the email with your CV enclosed as an attachment. State the job you are applying for in the ‘subject’ of the email. Also, save your CV with your name as the filename and don’t forget to attach it to the email. It is also highly recommended that you use an email account with your full name to appear more professional.


Sample cover letter



The CV
Your CV is an overview or summary of your qualifications and life experiences. It is essentially your personal marketing tool to make a good first impression on your potential employer. Since employers may receive hundreds of CVs a day, it is very important to ensure that your CV stands out from the rest.


Covering all bases
Here is a 10-step guide on how to write a proper CV:
  1.  Write your name at the top of each page in bold font so it is easily recognizable.
  2. Provide your full name and correspondence address so that the potential employers will know how to address you.
  3. Include other important contact information so that you can be easily reachable. Ensure that the phone numbers are correct as employers tend to call instead of email to make interview appointments.
  4. Your education and qualification should come next. Always start with the highest qualification obtained and work your way backwards. It is also good to include your secondary school results if you are a fresh graduate.
  5. Be sure to include any academic achievements in your CV. They serve as reinforcements of your aptitude and ability.
  6. Emphasize the most valuable skills for the job you are applying for. Use tables and rating scales for things like computer skills and language literacy.
  7. Detail your work experience. Again, start with the most recent and then work your way backwards chronologically. Emphasize the achievements in addition to listing the tasks you were involved in. This improves your employability.
  8. List down all notable interests and activities, especially those that you are passionate about. Highlight any leadership roles you have previously held.
  9. It is also good to add any additional skills which are not directly related to the job requirements, but are just as important, such as language proficiency and type of driving license.
  10. Ideally, you should have one work-related referee and one academic referee. However, ensure that you have their permission to include them as your referees and that you are on the lookout for a job so you don’t spring any surprises on them.


Sample CV

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Conclusion
A well written CV and cover letter that addresses every point made in the job advertisement or position description is what you should strive for if you are serious about getting the job that you want.


Additional readings, related links and references:

Resume writing, cover letter, interview tips, job search tips, at the work place, and career advancement.

How to write a masterpiece of a resume?

How to write a successful CV?

How to write a resume?

How to create a great resume?

Monday, 20 August 2012

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Franchising (Updated, August 2012)

By Jackie, Researcher
Topic: Business (Franchising)

The objectives of this research are to find out what are the major advantages and disadvantages of buying a franchise from the franchisee’s perspective. Basically, franchise is the practice of using another firm’s successful business model.

The benefits and drawbacks of buying a franchise


Franchise is a method of marketing and distributing based on a two parties relationship; 
that is the franchisor (the owner and granter of right) and the franchisee (recipient of right) relationship.
                
                Franchise or ‘business cloning’ is becoming more popular currently and it looks like a rapid growing trend of setting up a business nowadays as well as a strategic method for entrepreneurship as it usually carries lesser risks compared to conventional business start ups. Friendly speaking, franchising maybe a particularly good choice for ‘uncreative people’ who wants to start a business but has no prior business experience. It is advised that potential franchise owners should be aware and analyse all its benefits and drawbacks in detail before they decide to purchase a franchise.


Big Mac is a proven product of McDonald’s.

                Firstly, the most compelling advantage is the franchise offers a proven idea, product or service within an established market. This will definitely cut down research, experiment and survey costs as the potential franchise owners need not have to worry about the acceptability of a particular product or service by the general public. They also can save a lot of money, time and effort as they do not need to do market analysis like PESTEL analysis (Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Environment and Legal) nor SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) as these types of analyses have already been done by the franchisor. 


Starbucks’ logo is an image of a "twin-tailed mermaid, or siren as she's known in Greek mythology.

                Secondly, the purchase of a franchise with an established trademark or recognized brand name provides franchisees with considerable market power and reputation. For instance, the purchaser of a Starbucks’ franchise has a trademark with proven market power. The good thing about this is the owners no need to struggle for years in order to build up a good brand name or image which we commonly see in new entrepreneurs who have just stepped into the business world and wished to form their own products and company. Seriously, it is not easy to build a new brand name by our own efforts nowadays as there are too many brands out there whereby the competition is extremely high. 


Full training is provided for each step by the McDonald’s training team.

                Thirdly, another attractive benefit of purchasing a franchise rather than owning a store outright is the notion that the franchisor provides the franchisee ongoing support in terms of training, technical expertise, product updates and management assistance. These benefits are not available if a person plan to run a business on his or her own, thus making the process of operating a business other than franchise seems to be more difficult as the owners have to be more independent. A popular slogan in franchising is that people buying franchises to “be in business for themselves but not by themselves”. In short, the beauty of franchising is the availability of guide or “mentoring”.


Campaign allows KFC to communicate its message and brand to wider audience

                Fourthly, an established marketing network is usually provided. In other words, the franchisees do not need to do marketing on their own as the franchisor will do it as a whole. Just imagine if a person venture into a business which is not franchise, he or she has to struggle to attract customers by advertising. The point is if a person runs a business on his or her own rather than franchising, then most likely the advertising will be ineffective and not as successful as franchise. This is because franchise has its own marketing network plus the summation of all collectable advertising fees from all the franchisees creates a large pool of money where they can use a more expensive modern approach of advertising such as advertise in television, radio and billboards.


Pizza Hut’s truck.

                Fifthly, relationship with suppliers has already been established once a franchise is bought. The owners do not have to worry about getting reliable, trustable and good suppliers on their own. Besides, the prices of goods are usually cheaper due to economy of scale too. Even if the inflation sets in, the franchisee will be less affected as compared to other form of business because goods are ordered in a very large amount by the franchisor before distributing it to the franchisee and this enables the trade discount to take place too.


Total estimated initial investment for Freddy’s Frozen Custard & Steakburgers.

                This is however, there are certain major drawbacks of which the potential franchise owners must take into consideration before they make up their mind especially the initial cost of purchasing and setting up a franchise operation as they could be quite high. Therefore, usually franchise owners will suffer a huge amount of cash outflows at the beginning before they can enjoy profits. This is because, a large sum of money has to be paid for the trademark, necessary renovation to make the franchise looks identical with the others, purchase of furniture, stocks, machinery, payment of salaries and so on.


Royalty fee reduces profits
     
                Besides, the distribution of profit will be smaller as the franchisee is required to pay ongoing royalty fee usually monthly and is typically calculated as a percentage of gross sales, not net profit. This is to avoid franchisee from manipulating his or her franchise expenses in order to reduce net profit and this will directly reduce the royalty payment. The point is when royalty is computed based on sales, as long as there is a revenue even the franchise is making losses in a particular period, the franchise owner is still required to pay the royalty fee. When this situation arise, it is like “add salt to the wound”.


Restrictions on creativity

                Furthermore, there is a restriction on creativity. Many franchise systems are very rigid and leave little opportunity for individual franchisees to exercise their creativity. This is an often-cited frustration of franchisees. This is because most franchisors impose appearance and design standards, thus limiting the ways a franchisee can operates his or her franchise. Although, these standards can help in promoting uniformity, they can also limit franchisees’ new ideas and ability to cater to local tastes or needs.


KFC apologises to i-City outlet assault victim

                 In addition, if some of the franchisees in a franchise system starts performing poorly and makes an ineffective impression to the public, this can somehow affect the reputation and eventually the sales of a well-run franchise in the same system. In short, although all the franchises operate independently, but they are still inter-related and connected. For example, there is a recent case in Malaysia where a man was assaulted by a KFC’s kitchen crew member at its i-city branch in Shah Alam. A video recording of the assault went viral on YouTube. KFC’s reputation was damaged because of this incident and the fast food chain’s deputy president had met and apologized to the victim.


Sometimes a franchise agreement can be too strict and seems to be unfavourable 

                Moreover, there are also some issues relating to the duration, nature of the commitment and problems of termination or transfer. For a variety of reasons, many franchise agreements are difficult and expensive to terminate or transfer. Furthermore, virtually every franchise agreement contains a non-compete clause. These clauses vary in term of severity, but a typical clause prevents a former franchisee from competing with the franchisor for a period of two years or more. Often, a franchise cannot terminate a franchise agreement without paying the franchisor substantial monetary damages.

                In conclusion, the future of franchising is still bright. As franchising continues to become a more pervasive form of business, regulators and franchise associations are likely to intervene in ways that strengthen the viability of the franchise concept.


Additional readings, related links and references:

The Benefits of Franchising

Should You Buy A Franchise?

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising

Purchasing a Start-Up Franchise? Here are some Advantages and Disadvantages

What Are the Benefits & Drawbacks of a Franchise?
http://www.ehow.com/list_6811866_benefits-drawbacks-franchise_.html

Monday, 13 August 2012

How to calculate Internal Rate of Return (IRR)? (Critical Review)


By Jackie, Researcher
Topic: Education
Area of discussion: Finance; Management & Cost Accounting
Chapter: Investment appraisal methods – Internal Rate of Return (IRR)


The objectives of this research are to analyze few different methods which are available to calculate Internal Rate of Return. There are some advantages and disadvantages of using each method as none of them are perfect. Basically, there are three types of methods which I saw students often use in examinations and these methods are usually recommended in any relevant academic text books too. They are trial and error method, reverse calculation method, and linear interpolation method. For this discussion, I have randomly taken one question from previous college’s Management Accounting exam and I will apply all these three methods into the same question and we shall see which method is more preferable, faster or perhaps easier to use.


Introduction
Ideally, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of an investment project is the cost of capital or required rate of return which, when used to discount the cash flows of a project, it will produce a net present value of zero.


Let’s take a look at this question:


Trial and error method

Only use this method if there is no other better method available. It is very time consuming and thus, not recommended in exams.


Reverse calculation method

Highly recommended (simplest and most direct approach) especially when the discount factor is a whole number and the net cash inflow is the same for every year. Not suitable for discount factor that comes along with decimals as well as different annual net cash inflow. 



Linear interpolation method

It is appropriate to use when two NPV points are known. It is suitable for condition where the discount factor comes along with decimal place or when the annual cash inflow is different. However, the main weakness is “the further the two NPV points located from each other, the less accurate and reliable the computed rate will be”. Thus, the computed figure can only serve as approximation as it was not accurate.


We say ‘approximately’ since, in using linear interpolation we have drawn a straight line between two points on a project NPV line that is in fact a curve. The straight line will not cut the x-axis at the same place as the project NPV curve, so the value we obtained by interpolation is not the actual value of the IRR, but only an estimated value.

Illustration of why the IRR estimated by a single linear interpolation is only an approximation of the 
actual IRR of an investment project.               

Additional support material: PVIFA’s table



Additional readings, related links and references:

Calculating Internal Rate of Return Using Excel or a Financial Calculator

How to calculate Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and when is the time and in what situation IRR is not recommended to use?

Advantages and disadvantages of Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Finding Internal Rate of Return (IRR) using Excel

Calculating Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) using Excel
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzqpfpq6vSk&feature=related


Friday, 10 August 2012

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Social Networking For Business Purposes (Updated, August 2012)


By Jackie, Researcher
Topic: Business (Social Networking Websites)

Information technology has taken the world by storm. However, its potential is often debated. There are many pros and cons of using social networking websites, such as the Facebook for business purposes. However, the successfulness is still depending on how a company able to exploit them.


The strengths and limitations of using social networking websites

Facebook fan gate pages are a great way to encourage people to become fans of your brand on Facebook.
           
                The advancement of information technology has opened up a broad world of contact, made the world looks smaller and inspired majority of the businesses nor individuals to utilize social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Youtube, Friendster and Myspace as an useful communication tool to develop effective marketing strategies, save cost and budget, gain global awareness, encourage brand-building, share information and build public relationship, irrespective of geographic barrier and cultural differences. However, its potential and capability contain both strengths and weaknesses which will greatly affect the user.

Advantages (1): Marketing purpose

The fan page of General Motors Co on the Facebook Inc website. 
Many companies have started to advertise their product in social networking nowadays.

                Firstly, companies can communicate and receive feedback through interaction with the public and thus, create indirect advertising and improve overall marketing strategies. According to Beard (2009), social networking allows web users to socialize, gives an opportunity for the public to express their view regarding the quality of products and services provided by a particular company, improve or build customer relationship and enable customers to gain awareness of a brand via online publicizing. For instance, The National Geographic Society has created a fan page on Facebook to notify its members about its daily activities, researches and issues. Chruscinski (2011) states that social networks will be viewed by mass audiences which had proven to be true by The Nelson Company of which 22.7 percent of the world internet time in July 2010 was spent on social networking website. Besides, the creation of an online community and forum will draw interested parties’ attention, increased exposure with a little effort, at the same time identify and attracts potential customers. Beard (2009) highlights that the feedback and respond received from customers are essential for doing business analysis in order to understand customer behavior and current trend to make sure that a company is not outdated. Information received through online survey can provide a true and fair key market research for future planning and decision making. Therefore, in my opinion, it will be a convenient platform to host events and gatherings plus, if customers like our ‘updates’, they will have a tendency to share and spread it to their family and friends.

Advantages (2): Cost-saving

Social networking is a “modern marketing tool” which is believed can 
offer far more advantages as compared to “traditional strategies”.

                Secondly, companies can save marketing, advertising, publicity and recruitment expenses as most of the social networking websites are usually free. If not, it is still considered relatively cheap as compared to other traditional media like television, radio, or newspaper. Besides, it is far reach where companies can access to global market with immediate effect. Moreover, it is usually easy to use, do not require legal procedures, and long-lasting as posted information can stay online for a long period of time unless someone removes it (Grunert, 2009). Brooger (2010) explains that interested parties or clients can search a product or service offered by a company easily by surfing the related websites. In addition, if a company is facing any challenge or problem, the company can easily seek advice from experts via social networking websites and most beneficially, the advice is normally free. On the other hand, Beard (2009) suggests that it could also be an excellent recruitment tool where company can advertise job positions to a wider audience. This allows them to discover more about candidates’ background before deciding whether to pursue their application. Moreover, online advertising campaign can maintain a controlled budget, raise a company visibility and popularity, attracts attention of potential customers.

Disadvantage: Put company’s image, reputation and business opportunity at risk

Besides deteriorating physical health, the security of using social 
networking to do business is also questionable.

                There are certain drawbacks of using social networking websites. For instance, lack of control, directly affects company’s reputation, requires deep information technology knowledge, consumes a lot of time, could be risky, side effects might occur and needs high commitment for the person in charge. According to Brooger (2010), every message, comment and feedback that are being posted online are not fully controlled or regulated by the company. In addition, it might be hard to attract targeted audiences because they may use different social websites. Karimi (2009) warns that negative comments and complaints received from customers or clients as well as posting controversial opinions can tarnish a company’s reputation as many web users can view and spread it globally. Therefore, the companies have to carry heavy responsibility as all online activities should be handled cautiously and have to be monitored regularly to avoid problems. Besides, creating groups or event pages are not easy as it requires good computer skills, information technology experiences and deep knowledge and understanding on social networking. Brooger (2010) explains that using social networking websites might consumes much time as companies have to remain active to keep in touch with its regular customers. Next, internet fraudsters will have the opportunity to run illegal activities by using company details. Meanwhile, information posted online can be abused or misused by competitors. Consequently, individuals’ contact numbers and e-mail addresses that are being put online might lead to stalking and online harassment (Niharikas, 2010). Niharikas (2010) also warns that social networking can be absolutely addictive to employees which can cause serious errors in work and also reduce efficiency and productivity in term of time spent. Lastly, as large effort and resource investment are required, the person in charge of social networking must be highly committed and responsible. Social networks have to be updated consistently and frequently to keep the interest of the targeted audiences, but at the same time, always bear in mind that irrelevant posts could also turn off followers and clients as it is very annoying and disturbing (Grunert, 2009).

                All in all, companies should make full use of the extensive range of benefits of which can be acquired by using social networking websites, but they must remain prudent and cautious all the time especially in selecting the things to be posted as a tiny mistake in posting can lead to a significant downfall of a company. I believe social networking websites can provide far more functions as compared to conventional types of media like billboards, in term of prolong the usage duration, save cost and increase profitability. In short, users must think clearly, use it wisely and carefully.

References

‘Advantages And Disadvantages of Social Networking Sites’ 2010, The Tech Edition 18 March, viewed 5 July 2012, http://www.thetechedition.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-social-networking-sites/

Beard, A 2009, ‘The Pros & Cons of Social Networking as a business’, Gooruze 7 October, viewed 4 July 2012, http://www.gooruze.com/articles/1682/The-Pros--Con-of-Social-Networking-as-a-business/

Brooger 2009, ‘Using social networking sites for business marketing: Advantages and disadvantages, Brooger 9 July, viewed 5 July 2012, http://brooger.com/business-finance-money.php/using-social-networking-sites-for-business-marketing-advantages-and disadvantages

Chruscinski, D 2011, ‘The Pros & Cons of Social Networking in Business’, ehow 11 January, viewed 4 July 2012, http://www.ehow.com/info_7756235_pros-con-social-networking-websites

Grunert, J 2009, ‘Effective Social Networking Marketing Strategies’, Suite101 1 June, viewed 5 July 2012, http://www.suite101.com/content/effective-social-networking-marketing-strategies_a121975

Karimi, S 2009, ‘Pros and Cons of Using Facebook to Promote Your Business Online’, Hubpages 29 April, viewed 5 July 2012, http://hubpages.com/hub/Pros-and-Cons-of-Using-Facebook-to-Promote-Your-Business-Online

Niharikas 2010, ‘Pros and Cons of Social Networking Websites’, Bukisa 15 November, viewed 4 July 2012, http://www.bukisa.com/articles/ 396327_pros-and cons-of-social-networking-sites-for-business-marketing-advantages-and-disadvantages

Thursday, 9 August 2012

Negative Effects Of Gambling (Updated, August 2012)


By Jackie, Researcher
Topic: Society (Gambling)

The objectives of this research are to find out what are the most common adverse effects of gambling. There are mainly five effects under this discussion: change in behavior; mental and physical health issues; disrupt school or work activities; financial problems; and family and marital disturbance. Each effect is analyzed clearly with practical real-life examples.


Research Essay
INTI International College Subang
  
Negative Effects Of Gambling


                Adam, a typical middle-aged American, works as an engineer at a construction site in New York. He was married and has two lovely kids. His monthly income is barely sufficient to support his family of four in a moderate way. One day, he heard about the news that his friends had won thousands of dollars by betting in a nearby illegal gambling center. He was so attracted and influenced by the news. After a careful consideration, he had decided to give a try in gambling because if he wins, he can release the financial burden as well as to improve the standard of living of his family. So, he started to gamble. Unfortunately, he became addicted to gambling and his attitudes have changed gradually. He starts to smoke cigarette, drink alcohol and return home lately. His health begins to deteriorate. He suffers from migraine and gastric pain as he did not consumes his meals on time. Due to excess loss of money in gambling, he had borrowed a sum of money from unlicensed loan sharks to settle his gambling debts. The loan’s interest rate was so high until he has to sell off his cars and houses. At work, he was unable to concentrate on his job, often do errors and sometimes absent to work without a valid reason. As a result, he was fired. At home, he always argues and quarrels with his wife over a small matter. Sometimes, his wife gets beaten by him too. Few months later, his wife cannot tolerate with him anymore. As a result, his wife together with his two kids has left him alone. Adam is now jobless and homeless. More and more, addiction to gambling can lead to a change in behaviour, cause serious mental and physical health problems, disrupt school and work activities, increase financial problems, and create disharmony in the family.


Although genetics play an important role in the development of problem gambling in both women and men, 
but the researchers found no evidence of gender differences in the causes of problem gambling.

                Addiction to gambling can lead to a change in mindset, behaviour and attitude. In The Star (‘The adverse effects of gambling’ 2006, p. 23), Malaysia Crime Prevention Foundation (MCPF) states that one could become a dishonest person who has to constantly worry about debts. According to MCPF (2006), whenever a gambler becomes obsessed with gambling, the gambler will do anything including criminal activities like robbing and stealing as long as he or she can gamble. According to the article, gambling addiction can cause negative changes on one attitude such as bad-tempered, withdrawn, neglectful, irrational and irresponsible plus adverse changes in habit like tendency to return home lately and increase in alcohol consumption. Meanwhile, lying, making excuses and becoming more secretive are some of the common ways for gamblers to cover up their gambling act and financial problems. A research done by MCPF had shown that gambling can also encourage one to start smoking and taking alcoholic drinks because it can lower down their stress level and pressure. Besides, gamblers also might tend to isolate themselves from their friends and family as a way to hide or carry out their act. However, this will weaken gambler interpersonal interaction and communication with family members and friends, thus creating more misunderstanding and arguments. All in all, gambling is proven to have a tendency to alter one’s thinking and personality.

It is noted that as gambling escalates, other activities become constricted. Social activities, family interactions and leisure pursuits diminish in frequency, quality and satisfaction as the gambler becomes increasingly detached from interpersonal interaction, isolated and encapsulated in her/his own preoccupation with thoughts of the next session of betting/gaming and where to obtain funds to fuel her/his habits (Lesieur, 1979)

Researchers have found out that highly-addicted gamblers usually isolates themselves and like to be alone. 


                Secondly, gambling can cause mental health issues and physical health problems. According to a study conducted by Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), mental health issues include stress, anxiety and depression which will actually cause a gambler to have more difficulty to sleep, think and solve problems. So, gamblers will tend to smoke more as well as to increase in alcohol consumption and possible drug usage to solve these problems. The study also shows severe problem gamblers will have a possible risk of self-harming behaviour such as suicide attempt. Petry (2006) states that addicted gamblers will have the possibility to get insomnia, headaches, back or neck pain, high blood pressure, digestive problems and gastric. She says physical health problems of a gamble is normally disrupted by inappropriate eating time, insufficient exercises and unbalanced sleeping hours. Pathological gamblers were more than twice as likely as people without gambling problems to have angina and nearly three times more likely to have liver disease. They were also almost twice as likely to suffer from tachycardia, an excessively rapid heartbeat (US Federal Survey on Psychiatric Disorders 2006). 


One of the reasons why gambler tends to smoke more and increase in
alcohol consumption is to reduce pressure and stress.

                Besides, for students or workers, gambling can also disrupt both school and work activities. The Council on Compulsive Gambling of Pennsylvania (CCGP 2003) reported that students who are addicted to gambling will tend to increase unexplained absences from school, use school lunch money for gambling, drop in academic performance, unable to pay attention in class, and interrupt their educational goals. Meanwhile, for gambling-addicted workers, Colorado Lottery (CL 2007) warns that they can disrupt working activities through lost in time, lost in productivity, and in desperate situations, the gambler may resort to theft. Working hours are wasted as gamblers use them for gambling purposes like calling bookies for betting and searching gambling results using company’s computer while productivity is lessen as the gambler becomes unreliable, misses project deadlines and important meeting and produces poor working quality. In addition, the inability and inefficiency in working caused by gambling addiction can lead to dismissal. Meanwhile, severe gambling-addicted workers might resort to theft.

Employees with severe problems may commit theft, fraud or embezzlement. Money is the gambler’s key to action. Once all legitimate avenues to obtain cash are exhausted, the gambler, in desperation, may resort to illegal acts to acquire case. The workplace becomes a primary avenue for the gambler to illegally finance their gambling. Gamblers do not see this activity as stealing. They see it as “borrowing money” and plan to replace it when they win (Oregon Department of Human Services 2007).
                Another common adverse effect of addiction on gambling is financial problems. Oak (2009) claims that if a gambling-addicted worker is fired from his or her job, then he or she will lose his or her main source of income due to job loss. Consequently, this will lead to an inability to pay bills, expenses and loans. On the other hand, banks might blacklist poor payment gamblers account but this does not stopped them to borrow money from loan sharks or illegal moneylenders to cover losses and continue betting. For instance, many loan shark cases have been reported in Malaysia during recent FIFA World Cup matches where some gamblers have to sell off their assets like houses and cars to settle off their debts. Severe loss of money in gambling can results in bankruptcy.


Financial problems are the most common effect of gambling. 

Family and marital disturbances are a common end result of a seriously addicted gambler. Lorenz and Shuttleworth (1993) highlighted that fluctuation in mood states, lying and failure to meet obligation lead to marital friction and family disharmony. They found out that unchanged bad attitudes, repeated deceit and broken promises will undermine the sense of trust of a spouse towards the gambler. Meanwhile, they also point out that lack of funds to support children and the home, potential loss of assets and savings, frequent absences at home and neglecting family members can lead to frequent arguments and separation.

Family quarrel usually will happen where the gamblers used to be blamed for causing family and 
marital disturbances, and the most innocent party in this kind of situation is their kids.

In conclusion, these are the five major consequences that can happen frequently in highly-addicted gamblers. As we can see it, the degree of severity depends on how addicted a gambler is which could be found through a change in character as well as other adverse effects caused by them. Many people agree that gambling will not only affect the gambler alone but also creates a lot of trouble to his or her friends and family as well as to the society and community. However, the consequences caused by gambling can be avoided via personal awareness or by getting involved in other more beneficial and meaningful activities. Among the suggestions is to focus on spiritual development, take up sports or a hobby, or do some charity work. Therefore, it is important for us to limit or control, but the best is to avoid gambling activities.


References
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) 2010, The effects of gambling on family, viewed 24 July 2012, http://www.problemgambling.ca/EN/GettingHelp/Pages/TheEffectsOfGambling.aspx
Colorado Lottery (CL) 2007, Problem gambling and the workplace, viewed 24 July 2012, http://www.coloradolottery.com/documents/ProblemGambling/Workplace%20Gambling.pdf
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